Ebola

Discussion in 'New Science' started by Mighty_Emperor, May 27, 2004.

  1. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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  2. AlchoPwn

    AlchoPwn Ephemeral Spectre

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    Wikipedia tells us:
    The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, bats are considered to be the most likely candidate species.[51] Three types of fruit bats (Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti and Myonycteris torquata) were found to possibly carry the virus without getting sick.[75] As of 2013, whether other animals are involved in its spread is not known.[74]Plants, arthropods, rodents, and birds have also been considered possible viral reservoirs.[1][23]

    Bats were known to roost in the cotton factory in which the first cases of the 1976 and 1979 outbreaks were observed, and they have also been implicated in Marburg virus infections in 1975 and 1980.[76] Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[77] The bats displayed no clinical signs of disease, which is considered evidence that these bats are a reservoir species of EBOV. In a 2002–2003 survey of 1,030 animals including 679 bats from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo, 13 fruit bats were found to contain EBOV RNA.[78] Antibodies against Zaire and Reston viruses have been found in fruit bats in Bangladesh, suggesting that these bats are also potential hosts of the virus and that the filoviruses are present in Asia.[79]

    Between 1976 and 1998, in 30,000 mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and arthropods sampled from regions of EBOV outbreaks, no Ebola virus was detected apart from some genetic traces found in six rodents (belonging to the species Mus setulosus and Praomys) and one shrew (Sylvisorex ollula) collected from the Central African Republic.[76][80] However, further research efforts have not confirmed rodents as a reservoir.[81] Traces of EBOV were detected in the carcasses of gorillas and chimpanzees during outbreaks in 2001 and 2003, which later became the source of human infections. However, the high rates of death in these species resulting from EBOV infection make it unlikely that these species represent a natural reservoir for the virus.[76]

    The CDC tells us:
    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease most commonly affecting people and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). It is caused by an infection with one of five known Ebola virus species, four of which can cause disease in people:
    • Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus)
    • Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus)
    • Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus)
    • Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus)
    • Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people
    Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, the virus has been infecting people from time to time, leading to outbreaks in several African countries. Scientists do not know where Ebola virus comes from. However, based on the nature of similar viruses, they believe the virus is animal-borne, with bats being the most likely source. The bats carrying the virus can transmit it to other animals, like apes, monkeys, duikers and humans.

    Scientific American suggests:
    The hollow Cola tree growing in a remote area of southeastern Guinea was once home to thousands of bats routinely hunted and killed by the neighborhood children. It was also a popular spot to play. A year ago, one child in particular lived within fifty meters of the tree: a two-year-old boy who died in December 2013 and later was identified as the first person in west Africa known to have developed Ebola. The tree was one of the few that loomed over his home village of Meliandou, a hamlet of 31 houses. The question that now haunts researchers: were the tree’s occupants behind how that small boy contracted the virus in the first place? Taken from "Where Does Ebola Come From" By Dina Fine Maron on December 30, 2014
     
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  3. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Regardless of the fruit-bat crib mobiles that the media has dangled for the reader-prisoners, and despite vaccination of humans, the virus, much less unlike poliovirus, will remain at large. The vaccine itself points to insects as a likely reservoir as do nematodes (Australia; soybean cyst nematode), and Baruch S. Blumberg (NASA Astrobiology) links HBV to the retroviruses. There is one other place in Hooper's book, The River, that mentions Coquilhatville (Mbandaka), though Hooper does not list it in the index. This is the Russian connection (for those who have the volume, p. 1030), a more complex connection, which we will post on later. But the Nzara cotton factory, which is not mentioned by name in the Wiki excerpt above for ebola, also includes HIV/AIDS, which Hooper mentions, though leaves out of the index and also dismisses in the text. tbc
     
  4. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    The Nzara Excerpt

    'Joe McCormick claims that 0.9 percent of sera taken from around Nzara in southern Sudan in either 1976 or 1979 (he names both years) were HIV-positive. See J.B. McCormick and S. Fisher-Hoch, The Virus Hunters -- Dispatches from the Frontline (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), pp.185 and 190. However, since this claim appears to be based on one of the very earliest ELISA serosurveys, and since the details are confused with regard to year and seem never to have been reported in the literature, I have felt it best to omit them from the list.'
    (Hooper, The River, op cit p. 1007)

    Some readers may have a copy of The Virus Hunters, and Wiki's mention of roosting bats in the cotton factory were most likely not fruit bats, but those that eat insects. The 1976 date is important to link HIV/AIDS and ebola to Nzara as we link them to Mbandaka.
     
  5. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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  6. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Yulia Latynina's ebola article of 2014 is a Russian-ebola connection linking to Tom Carins's ebola infection. Apparently translated from the Russian original by Oleg Atbashian. We question the authenticity of this translation. The reader can retrieve the original Russian version by clicking on the Novaya Gazeta site:

    'Ebola in America' and Other Fake Problems Our Leaders Love to Fight
    https:drrichswier.com/2014/10/09/yulia-latynina-ebola-america-fake-problems/

    But the original Russian title is Likhoradka Ebola i ukrainskii fashizm (Ebola Fever and Ukrainian Fascism)

    Pointing to the pertinent Tom Cairns-ebola connection mentioned in point four, which states:

    'In 1972, an American doctor Thomas Cairns doing missionary work in the Congo, cut himself with a scalpel during an autopsy on a patient who had died of ebola -- a disease yet unknown to medical science. He survived because his wife, even under those conditions, treated him with a basic drip.'

    But the original Russian states:

    'On vyshil.
    He survived.

    Znaete kak?
    Know how?

    Pravil'no, ego zhena v krytoi bananovimi list'iami khizine stavila emu samodel'nye kapel'nitsy.
    Correctly, his wife covered it with banana leaves from the hut (roof) placed into a home-made dropper.'

    Atbashian does not mention banana leaves in the English translation, which is deceptive.

    Oleg Atbashain Arrested, Faces Five Years in Prison for Supporting Israel
    https://drrichswier.com/2016/11/ole...s-five-years-in-prison-for-supporting-israel/
     
  7. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    In The River, one other place Hooper mentions Coquilhatville that is not listed in the index is on page 1030. Another Russian connection is also on page 1030:

    'Note 26. Although there is no record of Pan troglodytes troglodytes being present at Lindi, it is not impossible. Jos Mortelmans recalls that Courtois was already working with chimps in Stanleyville before Lindi opened in June 1956, and these animals might have come from Leopoldville or Coquilhatville (where both troglodytes and schweinfurthi were available), And the Lindi databook reveals that during 1957 and 1958, two chimps arrived at Lindi from the Stanleyville zoo, and one from Coquilhatville. The species and subspecies were not identified.

    Note 25. A Soviet man was apparently infected through a blood transfusion given in Congo Brazzaville in 1981. See M. Smallman-Raynor, A. Cliff, and P. Haggett, Atlas of AIDS (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992),pp. 332-4. The infected man's wife later gave birth to a perinatally infected baby, who -- in one of the saddest and most extraordinary stories of the AIDS pandemic -- was the source of a nosocomial outbreak of Group M-related AIDS at Elista Hospital in the south of the USSR. This epidemic resulted in the infection of 57 infants (probably due to the use of inadequately sterilized needles) and eight mothers -- who may have contracted the virus from their infants, as a result of breast-feeding with cracked nipples.'
    (The River, p. 1030)

    Thus, unidentified chimps that may be implicated in the origin of HIV/AIDS via polio vaccinations link precisely to Mbandaka (Coquilhatville), location of current ebola vaccinations. Another version of the Elista story mentions the G subtype of HIV-1:

    Not a "Western Disease" After All: How HIV Appeared in the USSR
    https://www.rbth.com/politics_and_s...after-all-how-hiv-appeared-in-the-ussr_644835
    '....The Kalmykia Outbreak....'
     
  8. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Spectres of Ebola: Tracking Vectors and Reservoirs

    We have already mentioned in this thread the VSV-Indiana link to Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoes, rVSV-EBOV being the vaccine currently used at Mbandaka.

    Assessment of the Ability of V920 Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis-Zaire Ebolavirus Vaccine to Replicate in Relevant Arthropod Cell Cultures and Vector Species
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29206076

    Plant Phenology Supports the Multiemergence Hypothesis for Ebola Spillover Events
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29134435

    A plant of interest, called "Midsummer Men' by Russians, is Rhodiola:

    (Mar 2018) Anti-Ebola Rhodiola (San Antonio, Texas; Chicago, Illinois; Jinan, China)
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29584652
     
  9. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    It is strange that ebola is vectored by fruit bats though no reports of fruit-bat sightings, which must have occurred a few times throughout Congo's history. This report does mention demons:

    9 Jun 2018 Fighting Ebola with Tact and Patience
    https://www.41nbc.com/2018/06/09/fighting-ebola-with-tact-and-patience/
    '....a demon that needs to be chased as the Bible requires....'

    9 Jun 2018 Why Veterinarians Are the Key to Defeating Ebola
    https://www.salon.com/2018/06/09/why-veterinarians-are-the-key-to-defeating-ebola/

    Lehigh University Researchers Track Bats to Predict Next Ebola Outbreak
    (Site not secure)
    www.mcall.com/news/local/nazareth/mc-nws-lehigh-ebola-20180530-story.html
     
  10. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Tracking Ebola Reservoirs

    Salmonella mbandaka occurs in poultry in the UK and US, some strains are multidrug resistant:

    Salmonella mbandaka
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29608757

    But the UK cattle connection, unlike the the chicken connection, links to VSV-EBOV vaccine (for the isolation of VSV-Indiana from Kansas cattle):

    (London/Heidelberg) Salmonella mbandaka
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26846255
    '....We show that UK isolates of S. mbandaka comprise one clonal lineage which is adapted to proficient utilisation of metabolites found in soya beans under ambient conditions.'

    The progenitor of the soybean comes from Australia, and the soybean cyst nematode carries Mononegavirales sequences in its genome. Marburg and ebola are Mononegavirales:

    Novel RNA Viruses Within Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes
    journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193881
    'SCN (soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines) NLV and BLV are negative-sense RNA viruses....an additional viral genome was identified from Globodera pallida (potato cyst nematode). The virus is a picorna-like virus (a positive-sense virus).'

    Poliovirus is a picornavirus. Salmonella has been isolated from the Giant fruit bat Pteropus in India, though the three suspect ebola vectors in Africa are Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat), Hypsignathus monstrosus (Hammer-headed fruit bat), and Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian fruit bat). Apparently, no filoviruses have been isolated from bats. Bananas are part of the diet of Hypsignathus monstrosus.

    Phylogeography of African Fruit Bats
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746072
     
  11. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Spectres of Polio

    This report contains maps for vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks, which can be superimposed over ebola maps:

    16 Mar 2018 CDC: Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks
    https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6710a4.htm?s_cid=mm6710a4_e
    '....Kindu health zone....29 Mar 2017 paralysis onset....Lubumbashi....longstanding suboptimal poliovirus immunity....'

    This prompts the question of which ebola patients are in proximity to which polio cases, which chevrotains to which fruit bats.
     
  12. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Nipah virus (Mononegavirales) is now vying for attention in the media,

    Henipahvirus
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henipavirus

    though a link to HIV-2 in sooty mangabey links to Lagos Bat virus, which is found in Eidolon helvum, mentioned in a previous post:

    'No. 73 Lagos Bat Virus

    Isolated by L.R. Boulger, Lagos, Nigeria from fruit bat, Eidolon helvum
    Time of Collection: Feb 1956
    Susceptibility to Experimental Infection: Monkey (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus), 5th passage. No evidence of infection.'
    (Catalogue of Arthropod Borne Viruses of the World)

    Lagos bat virus (Rhabdoviridae) is an ebola connection to the Congo vaccination sites as well as HIV-2 infection in mangabeys.
     
  13. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Nipah virus was isolated from Eidolon dupreanum.
     
  14. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    If some bat fly parasites of fruit bats are blind, we track CMV infections via the chevrotain and CMV-based ebola vaccine:

    (May 2015) CMV-Based Ebola Vaccine
    (Hamilton, Montana; Braunschweig, Germany; Portland, Oregon; Riverside, California; Devon, UK)
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820063

    Current vaccine being used in Congo is Diptera-based (VSV-EBOV). One of the current epicenters of ebola is at Iboko, linking ocular CMV:

    Iboko / CMV Retinitis
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9479820
    '....Cataract and glaucoma constituted a public health problem in this rural area of Ziare.'

    One reason why African chevrotain mothers teach their young to eat Pycnanthus twigs, is here:

    (May 2018, India) CMV / Newborn Glaucoma
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18408779

    We have mentioned the "ghost sequence" as the signal for myristoylation, which links to rhino- and poliovirus. The chemical structures are shown in this report, and we will track the pharmacodynamics of these compounds to show how some plant chemistry outwits viruses:

    Anti-Poliovirus N-Myristoylation
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29760414

    Fruit bats in Ghana and Nigeria link ebola vector-reservoir investigations:

    Nigeria / CMV Retinitis / HIV-AIDS
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18408779
     
  15. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    The Diptera-based ebola vaccine (VSV0EBOV) also links to the retina via VSV-pseudotyping:

    (2005) VSV-Pseudotype HIV-1 Gene Transfer Vectors / Retinal Cell Type Expression Specificity
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15966018
     
  16. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    Ebola and Marburg viruses are Mononegavirales. Mononegavirales sequences found in the soybean cyst nematode links to the chevrotain's food, Pycnanthus (Myristaceae) and anti-polio myristoylation:

    (2014 Mississippi State University) Heterodera glycines / Myristoylation
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452833
     
  17. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    To help verify that major viruses are involved in the area of the latest ebola outbreak, this report has a map:

    WHO Officials Fear Latest Ebola Outbreak in Congo Could Spread to Big Cities
    https://www.statnews.com/2018/05/09/news-ebola-outbreak-congo-raises-who-concerns/
    '....or Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, to the north.'

    Institute Pasteur, Bangui
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10580275

    Edward Hooper (The River) mentions polio vaccinations at Mitzic in Gabon, but does not mention polio cases at Quesso, which is at the southernmost tip of Cameroon. This is documented in the literature somewhere, though we no longer have the citation. Quesso is on the Sangha River, which connects to the Congo River below Mbandaka. The bush meat trade in Cameroon acquires many animals from southern and southeastern Cameroon, which end up in the market at Yaounde. In Hooper's book, Yaounde is shown on the map. The Sangha River region borders the area in Cameroon which was the origin of the HIV-O subtype. As far as is known, the WHO has not mentioned wild polio at Quesso in its published literature, and does not seem to be available on the internet.

    Congo's Ebola Outbreak Poses Challenges for Bush Meat
    https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/w...-outbreak-poses-challenges-bush-meat-55955018
    ''....four years ago....it was widely suspected that the epidemic began when a 2-year-old boy in Guinea was infected by a bat. '
     
  18. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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  19. MikeL

    MikeL Junior Acolyte

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    There is no doubt that polio cases at Quesso (sometimes spelled Ouesso) is documented, even though we cannot retrieve the citation at this time. Here is the counterpart to those polio cases, which further supports the polio connection to HIV/AIDS:

    Ouesso (Quesso) HIV Subtype Diversity
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16473564
    '....p24 gag....'

    We have already mentioned the myristoylation connection to the plant compounds that link to Thomas Duncan's ebola medication (brincidofovir), which med is the ether-lipid analogue of cidofovir. This means that anti-ebola activity involves myristoylation, as we have already mentioned the HIV-1 link to myristoylation. Myrostoylation is a lipidation modification, just as sumoylation is a post-translational modification in ebola VP40. We have already mentioned gag in previous messages:

    Ebola VP40 Sumoylation
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27849047

    Ebola Zaire / Sumoylation
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557165

    Myristoylation
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myristoylation

    SUMO Protein
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SUMO_protein

    Three main theories of the origin of HIV/AIDS (SIV-contaminated polio vaccine, SIV-contaminated bush meat, or reuse of hypodermic needles) coalesce in southeast Cameroon and northern Congo.
     

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